Seminars in Immunology, DOI: 10.1016/j.smim.2017.06.001 (2017).
Sarah Al-Maawi, Anna Orlowska, Robert Sader, C. James Kirkpatrick, Shahram Ghanaati
Biomaterials are widely used in guided bone regeneration (GBR) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR). After application, there is an interaction between the host immune system and the implanted biomaterial, leading to a biomaterial-specific cellular reaction. The present review focuses on cellular reactions to numerous biomaterials in vivo with consideration of different implantation models and microenvironments in different species, such as subcutaneous implantation in mice and rats, a muscle model in goats and a femur model in rabbits. Additionally, cellular reactions to different biomaterials in various clinical indications within the oro-maxillofacial surgical field were considered. Two types of cellular reactions were observed. There was a physiological reaction with the induction of only mononuclear cells and a pathological reaction with the induction of multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). Attention was directed to the frequently observed MNGCs and consequences of their appearance within the implantation region. MNGCs have different subtypes. Therefore, the present review addresses the different morphological phenotypes observed within the biomaterial implantation bed and discusses the critical role of MNGCs, their subtypes and their precursors as well as comparing the characteristics and differences between biomaterial-related MNGCs and osteoclasts. Polymeric biomaterials that only induced mononuclear cells underwent integration and maintained their integrity, while polymeric biomaterials that induced MNGCs underwent disintegration with material breakdown and loss of integrity. Hence, there is a question regarding whether our attention should be directed to alternative biological concepts, in combination with biomaterials that induce a physiological mononuclear cellular reaction to optimize biomaterial-based tissue regeneration.